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Review by Structural Engineer1 year ago
Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, and vehicles where structural integrity affects functioning and safety. See glossary of structural engineering.
Structural engineering theory is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering design uses a number of relatively simple structural engineers to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
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Review by Marcin1 year ago
Recently, I came across the ukplan, as I needed a structural survey done for future refurbishment works. I was looking to knock down couple of partition walls in my flat in order to make a bigger living room joined with open space kitchen. I was assured that there will be no need for the intrusive survey.
I agreed and paid upfront £550 for services.
When I received the report from the ukplan, I was very concerned seeing something that I did not appoint them to do.
Instead of surveying the walls, checking what are they build of, I was provided with the worst case scenario solution, based on assumption that these walls are load bearing walls. The solution was providing a full steel support beams as a replacement for a two partition walls.
When I called ukplan and asked to provide what they were paid for, they dropped the call, explaining later (over the text message) that they have no time to talk to the client.
I also contacted ukplan twice over the email asking to return to the flat and do the job properly, because they did not provide the proper service at the first time. I never received any further explanation.
I do not recommend trading with this company.
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Review by JF4 years ago
Dedicated to the work and excellent output. Highly recommended
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Review by planninguk4 years ago
Structural engineers are trained to understand, predict, and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures, to develop designs and integrate their design with that of other designers, and to supervise construction of projects on site. They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles etc. where structural integrity affects functioning and safety.
Structural engineering theory is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering design utilizes a number of relatively simple structural elements to build complex structural systems. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
Structural Engineer (Professional)
Main article: Structural Engineer
Structural engineers are responsible for engineering design and analysis. Entry-level structural engineers may design the individual structural elements of a structure, for example the beams, columns, and floors of a building. More experienced engineers may be responsible for the structural design and integrity of an entire system, such as a building.
Structural engineers often specialize in particular fields, such as bridge engineering, building engineering, pipeline engineering, industrial structures, or special mechanical structures such as vehicles, ships or aircraft.
Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It became a more defined and formalised profession with the emergence of the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were usually one and the same - the master builder. Only with the development of specialised knowledge of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries did the professional structural engineer come into existence.
The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding of both static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resist them. The complexity of modern structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree, followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified. Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatory bodies around the world (for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers in the UK). Depending on the degree course they have studied and/or the jurisdiction they are seeking licensure in, they may be accredited (or licensed) as just structural engineers, or as civil engineers, or as both civil and structural engineers. Another international organisation is IABSE (International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering). The aim of that association is to exchange knowledge and to advance the practice of structural engineering worldwide in the service of the profession and society.
History of Structural Engineering
Main article: History of structural engineering
Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC.
Structural engineering dates back to 2700 B.C.E. when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by Imhotep, the first engineer in history known by name. Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient civilizations because the structural form of a pyramid is inherently stable and can be almost infinitely scaled (as opposed to most other structural forms, which cannot be linearly increased in size in proportion to increased loads).
However, it's important to note that the structural stability of the pyramid is not primarily a result of its shape. The integrity of the pyramid is intact as long as each of the stones is able to support the weight of the stone above it. The limestone blocks were taken from a quarry near the build site. Since the compressive strength of limestone is anywhere from 30 to 250 MPa (MPa = Pa * 10^6), the blocks will not fail under compression. Therefore, the structural strength of the pyramid stems from the material properties of the stones from which it was built rather than the pyramid's geometry.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. No theory of structures existed, and understanding of how structures stood up was extremely limited, and based almost entirely on empirical evidence of 'what had worked before'. Knowledge was retained by guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.
No record exists of the first calculations of the strength of structural members or the behavior of structural material, but the profession of structural engineer only really took shape with the Industrial Revolution and the re-invention of concrete (see History of Concrete). The physical sciences underlying structural engineering began to be understood in the Renaissance and have since developed into computer-based applications pioneered in the 1970s.
1452–1519 Leonardo da Vinci made many contributions
1638: Galileo Galilei published the book "Two New Sciences" in which he examined the failure of simple structures
Galileo Galilei published the book "Two New Sciences" in which he examined the failure of simple structures
1660: Hooke's law by Robert Hooke
1687: Isaac Newton published "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" which contains the Newton's laws of motion
Isaac Newton published "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" which contains the Newton's laws of motion
1750: Euler–Bernoulli beam equation
1700–1782: Daniel Bernoulli introduced the principle of virtual work
1707–1783: Leonhard Euler developed the theory of buckling of columns
Leonhard Euler developed the theory of buckling of columns
1826: Claude-Louis Navier published a treatise on the elastic behaviors of structures
1873: Carlo Alberto Castigliano presented his dissertation "Intorno ai sistemi elastici", which contains his theorem for computing displacement as partial derivative of the strain energy. This theorem includes the method of least work as a special case
1874: Otto Mohr formalized the idea of a statically indeterminate structure.
1922: Timoshenko corrects the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation
1936: Hardy Cross' publication of the moment distribution method, an important innovation in the design of continuous frames.
1941: Alexander Hrennikoff solved the discretization of plane elasticity problems using a lattice framework
1942: R. Courant divided a domain into finite subregions
1956: J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and L. J. Topp's paper on the "Stiffness and Deflection of Complex Structures" introduces the name "finite-element method" and is widely recognized as the first comprehensive treatment of the method as it is known today
Main articles: Structural failure and List of structural failures and collapses
The history of structural engineering contains many collapses and failures. Sometimes this is due to obvious negligence, as in the case of the Pétionville school collapse, in which Rev. Fortin Augustin "constructed the building all by himself, saying he didn't need an engineer as he had good knowledge of construction" following a partial collapse of the three-story schoolhouse that sent neighbors fleeing. The final collapse killed 94 people, mostly children.
In other cases structural failures require careful study, and the results of these inquiries have resulted in improved practices and greater understanding of the science of structural engineering. Some such studies are the result of forensic engineering investigations where the original engineer seems to have done everything in accordance with the state of the profession and acceptable practice yet a failure still eventuated. A famous case of structural knowledge and practice being advanced in this manner can be found in a series of failures involving box girders which collapsed in Australia during the 1970s.
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